Reference guide

Below is given quite a few examples of the reference style that we use in Human IT. We make use of the parenthesis system for references in the body text and reserve endnotes for comments and shorter discussions that are not suitable for the body text itself. In the cases where there is a difference between the Scandinavian languages and English, use the convention of the language the article is written in rather than the language of the particular reference. This applies to e.g. quotation marks.

Abbreviations for states or provinces in the USA, Canada or Australia are taken from the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.

Common reference style errors in new submissions

Please take particular note of the following items that differ from other systems such as APA, and are frequently overlooked in new submissions: 

Inline text references are written without comma following author name, and with only a comma preceeding page numbers:
(Author year, pages) i.e. (King 2012, 97).
Page number is not marked with "p." or other devices. 

In your reference list, write out all authors' first names in full and not as initials.

Also note the order of first name and last name for authors in your reference list. Only the first author is written as Lastname, Firstname. Second and following authors are written Firstname Lastname:
Preece, Jenny, Helen Sharp & Yvonne Rogers (2015). Interaction Design . . . 

Volume and page data for journal articles are formatted as follows:
volume.issue: pages. Thus: Human IT 14.2: 88–120.  

See below for the full reference style guide. 

Title capitalization

English language titles of works are always capitalized, independent of the language of your submission. Write initial caps on all title words, except articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. Word length is not a factor, e.g., "through" is written in small caps when used as a preposition.

For words joined by hyphen, capitalize both words if the first could stand alone, e.g., "Context-Independent". Capitalize only the first word if it could not stand alone, e.g., "Non-binary". 

Always capitalize the first word of the subtitle, and also the last word of the complete title.

Book by one author

Aarseth, Espen J. (1997). Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins UP.

(Aarseth 1997, 15ff.)

(Note: if the book has not yet been published, use 'forthcoming' or 'under utg.')

Book by two or three authors

Bolter, Jay David & Richard Grusin (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge, MA & London: MIT Press.

(Bolter & Grusin 1999, ch. 2-3)

Book by four or more authors

Hård af Segerstad, Helene et al. (1997). Problembaserat lärande: idén, handledaren och gruppen. Stockholm: Liber.

(Hård af Segerstad et al. 1997)

Book with an editor

(Note: in cases where the editor performs a creative/critical function deemed to be significant)

Le Guin, Ursula K. & Brian Attebery, eds. (1993). The Norton Book of Science Fiction: North American Science Fiction, 1960-1990. New York: Norton.

(Le Guin & Attebery 1993)

(Note: in cases where the editor performs an editorial function rather than a significantly creative / critical function)

Arkivvetenskap (1995). Ed. Anna Christina Ulfsparre. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

(Arkivvetenskap 1995, 33)

Book with an Author and an Editor

Joyce, James (1986). Ulysses. Eds. Hans W. Gabler, Wolfhard Steppe & Claus Melchior. New York: Garland.

(Joyce 1986)

Work in an Anthology

Foucault, Michel (2002). “What is an Author?” The Book History Reader. Eds. David Finkelstein & Alistair McCleery. London & New York: Routledge. 225-230.

(Foucalt 2002)

Book in a Series

Svedjedal, Johan (2000). The Literary Web: Literature and Publishing in the Age of Digital Production: A Study in the Sociology of Literature. (Acta Bibliothecae Regiae Stockholmiensis, 62; Skrifter utgivna av Avdelningen för litteratursociologi vid Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen i Uppsala, 42). Stockholm: Kungliga Biblioteket.

Republished Book

Wilde, Oscar (1992). The Picture of Dorian Gray. [1890]. Ware: Wordsworth Editions.

(Wilde 1992/1890)

Later Editions

Landow, George P. (1997). Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. 2nd rev. ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.

Published Proceedings of a Conference

Exploring the Contexts of Information Behaviour: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 13-15 August 1998, Sheffield, UK (1999). Eds. Thomas D. Wilson & David K. Allen. London: Taylor Graham.

(Exploring 1999)

Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS 4: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002 (2002). Eds. Harry Bruce et al. Greenwood Village, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

(Emerging 2002)

Journal article

Ilshammar, Lars (2002). ”Föreställningar om IT och demokrati.” Human IT 6.1-2: 17-49. Also available as: (or: Även tillgänglig som:) <> [2005-07-13]

(Ilshammar 2002, 25)

(Note: “Also available as…” is used when there is an online equivalent to the printed version referred to)

McLaverty, James (1984). “The Concept of Authorial Intention in Textual Criticism.” The Library June: 121-138.

(McLaverty 1984, 122)

Without volumes:

Kittler, Friedrich (1998). “Datoranalfabetismen.” Res Publica 39: 63-76.

(Kittler 1998, 72)

(Note: the standard form is: volume.issue: pages)

Work in a Published Conference Proceeding

Toms, Elaine G., D. Grant Campbell & Ruth Blades (1999). “Does Genre Define the Shape of Information: The Role of Form and Function in User Interaction with Digital Documents.” ASIS ’99: Proceedings of the 62nd ASIS Meeting, Washington, DC, October 31st-November 4th, 1999. Medford, NJ: Information Today. 693-704.

(Toms, Campbell & Blades 1999, 702)

Film, Television Programs, Computer Games

The Matrix (1999). Dir. Andy Wachowski & Larry Wachowski. Warner Brothers.

Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (2001). Dir. Chris Columbus. DVD. Warner Brothers.

”The Hero’s Adventure” (1988). Moyers: Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. Prod. Catherine Tatge. PBS. WNET, New York. 23 May.

Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (2001). PC version. KnowWonder Digital Mediaworks, Electronic Arts.

Work in a Language Other Than Those of the Journal

Eco, Umberto (2003). Dire quasi la stessa cosa: esperienze di traduzione [To Say Almost the Same Thing: Experiences of Translation]. Milano: Bompiani.

Web Page / Web Site

Francke, Helena (2003). Helena Francke. Högskolan i Borås. <> [2004-02-12]

(Note on Title: select as title the text string that appears most prominently as a title on the web page. This is not necessarily the same as the text encoded with the HTML <title> element; on Date: if the web page includes dates for both when it was originally created and when it was last updated, use the year for original creation. If both dates are missing, leave out the date information in the reference and just state when the web page was accessed.)

Högskolan i Borås. Högskolan i Borås. <> [2004-02-12]

(Högskolan i Borås)

[MLA] Modern Language Association of America: Committee on Scholarly Editions (1997). Guidelines for Electronic Scholarly Editions. <> [2004-02-26]

(Note: if the author and the publisher can be assumed to be identical, do not state publisher in the reference.)

Contribution in Electronic Journals

Brown, John Seely & Paul Duguid (1996). “The Social Life of Documents.” First Monday 1.1. <> [2004-09-20]

(Brown & Duguid 1996)

(Note: for PDF or MS Word files use page references if possible, and then as they are displayed in the text rather than by the software)

Gunder, Anna (2004). “Harry Ludens: Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone as a Novel and Computer Game.” Human IT 7.2: 1-137. <> [2004-09-20]

(Gunder 2004, 76)

Contributions on e-mail lists

McCarty, Willard (2003). “Data Modelling for the History of the Book?” Humanist Discussion Group 16.509 (26 Feb). London: King’s College, Centre for Computing in the Humanities. <> [2004-02-12]

Talk at a Conference

Sundén, Jenny (2003). ”Materiella virtualiteter: kropp och maskin i textbaserad virtual reality.” Presentation at the conference Digitala dimensioner I, Uppsala universitet, 15-16 januari 2003.

Lavagnino, John (1996). “The Analytical Bibliography of Electronic Texts.” Paper presented at the conference ALLC-ACH ’96, Universitetet i Bergen. <> [2004-02-12]